RBM 23/2

Repercussions of the long eighteenth century





   
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This volume launches the guiding theme “Repercussions of the long eighteenth century”, and presents studies of general and specific interest. The opening article by José Maria Pedrosa Cardoso (University of Coimbra) and the following one by Mariana Portas Freitas (Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation) are of extreme importance for Luso-American music studies. The articles by Diósnio Machado Neto (USP), Aldo Luiz Leoni (UNICAMP) and Régis Duprat (USP/Brazilian Academy of Music) are critical reflections on the historiography of Brazilian music and its paradigms in the history of musicology in Brazil. The article by Michel Nicolau (UNICAMP/Humboldt University of Berlin) discusses an issue concerning music as a research field, its historical and anthropological construction, and identity representation. On the same path, the articles by Silvio Merhy (UniRio) and Edilson Vicente de Lima (UCS) approach popular music in Brazil. In-depth historical studies dealing with documentation that had remained unscrutinized so far are presented by Claudia Polastre (SMCSP) and Marshal Gaioso Pinto (IFG/University of Kentucky), the latter dealing with the reappropriation of musical works. Régis Duprat’s tribute to Francisco Curt Lange is followed by reviews by Marcelo Campos Hazan (University of Columbia) and Maria Alice Volpe (UFRJ) on recently published books, and another by Aloysio Fagerlande (UFRJ) of a newly released CD.

This RBM volume also pays tribute to the musicologist Régis Duprat, for his 80th birthday, with an interview led by Ilza Nogueira (UFPB/Brazilian Academy of Music), who knows well the struggles of that generation.

André Cardoso (UFRJ/Brazilian Academy of Music) presents a musicological edition of a musical work by the Portuguese composer who taught at the Patriarchate of Lisbon, José Joaquim dos Santos, located in the archive of this Brazilian institution. In this way, it completes the course of this volume devoted to the eighteenth century and its repercussions, with particular interest to the studies of music in Brazil and its relations with Portugal.


EDITORIAL

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ARTICLES

Chant of the Passion: the Portuguese typology

José Maria Pedrosa Cardoso 

Abstract

Since the historical chant of Passion, in documents of polyphonic music, has revealed to be specially rich in Portugal, it became necessary to establish a convenable typology, so that scholars could better organize their studies. Similar to musicological studies in general, but according to Portuguese tradition, those musical documents can be classified as Texto, Versos or Bradados of Passion, as far as polyphony is found only in the narrative speech, in some sentences of the Passion’s narration (normally Christ’s “ditos”, but also narrative sentences), and in the sentences of the people that intervens in the action, except Christ, be it collective (turbas) or collective and singular (full bradados). All these types of the Passion’s chant in the liturgy were performed in Portugal – and, supposedly, in Brazil – during 16th and 17th centuries, and their quality and quantity, sometimes in the work of the best composers, as Antônio Carreira, João Lourenço Rebelo, Francisco Martins and so on, is explained by the aesthetic taste and the practice of a Christian spirituality historically identified in Portugal.

Keywords

Chant of the Passion – liturgical music – church polyphony – Portuguese music.

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From Guido’s hexachord to “French” solmization: the Escola de Canto de Orgaõ by Caetano de Melo de Jesus (1759) – First reception of the heptachord theory in a Portuguese music treatise

Mariana Portas de Freitas 

Abstract

The Escola de Canto de Orgaõ by Caetano de Melo de Jesus (1759-1760) is a treatise on music theory whose vast dimensions and ambitious purpose are unparalleled in Portuguese-Brazilian music theory. With a historical approach to solmization, although in the apologetic style of the Ancien Regime, it introduces the heptachord system, which was until then ignored by Portuguese music theory. Although recognizing the practical advantages of the heptachord, Caetano states his preference for the ancient hexachordal method of Guido, founded on the symbolic system of Boecius, in which music was part of a harmonious, divine universe ruled by numeric proportions.

Keywords

Caetano de Melo de Jesus – Portuguese music theory – heptachord – French solmization.

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Curt Lange and Régis Duprat: critical frames on the music of Brazil’s colonial period

Diósnio Machado Neto 

Abstract

Since the 1980s, Brazilian musicology has taken up some issues of Critical Theory as it grows increasingly willing to understand discursive structures concerning the past of music in Brazil. Along with those lines, this article aims at deconstructing historiography by use of its own bibliography, as well as conceptual and ideological sources. The purpose is to analyse interpretative models in Colonial-era historiography, linking two authors who have a strong influence on the construction of knowledge about the period at issue: Francisco Curt Lange and Régis Duprat. As a result, it is brought to light each author´s viewpoint on the socio-political structure that bases their theses on musical practices. As for the interpretative level, after identifying concepts and theoretical references, the text explores each author´s position and their choices. In conclusion: Curt Lange as the last representative of bio-sociological determinism in Brazilian music historiography, and Régis Duprat in conformity with the view on the administrative system as framing the experiences in the colony. Accordingly, bio-sociological determinism is surpassed in favor of comparative history, through which social phenomena are in close relation with the sense of time-space as well as with long-running structures. The analysis of the historical thought of those two musicologists, Lange and Duprat, demonstrates the rupture brought about by the latter in Brazilian music historiography.

Keywords

Musicology – Brazilian music historiography – Colonial period – Francisco Curt Lange – Régis Duprat.

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Music historiography and racial hibridization

Aldo Luiz Leoni 

Abstract

The historiography concerning the music of Portuguese America has been largely permeated by the use of the musician’s skin colour as the foundation for a “musical mulattoism”. This thesis, which was epitomized by Francisco Curt Lange in the middle of 20th century, consisted of considering racial fusion as a positive element in the social and cultural development of the Brazilian population, and as a distinctive mark of national identity, particularly in comparison with European models. This mode of understanding the mestizo element in Brazilian culture has its roots in the nationalist thinking prior to 19th century Romanticism. Many essays and studies on music in Portuguese America have highlighted the condition of the musicians as “mulattos”, starting with the first texts by Manuel de Araújo Porto Alegre (1836). Most aspects of this interpretive model are still present in academic writing linked to the study of colonial artistic activity. This leads one to question the origins of this myth and to discuss whether, in light of current developments in cultural historical interpretation, this paradigm is still satisfactory.

Keyword

Musical historiography – acculturation – racial hybridization – musical mulattoism and nationalism.

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The Opera House in São Paulo during the government of D. Luis Antônio de Sousa Botelho Mourão

Claudia Polastre 

Abstract

This study investigates the musical activities of São Paulo city from 1765 to 1822. It verifies how music circulated in sacred as well as profane social spaces, which was followed by the process of democratization of public spaces, contributing for increasing socialization practices of Brazilian colonial society. This study demonstrates the activities of the “house of opera” during the government of D. Luís Antônio de Sousa Botelho Mourão, which gave to the city of São Paulo a cultural integration with the main cities of colonial Brazil.

Keywords

Music – colonial São Paulo – opera – festivities – sacred-profane.

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The conditions of global discourse of diversity: Music Encyclopedias, Dictionaries and Ethnomusicology 

Michel Nicolau Netto 

Abstract

Discourse of diversity acquired positive value in the present day and enough strength so as to organize some of the global enunciations and even those which are proposed to be universal. Ethnomusicology has embodied this discourse of diversity, so as to propose the study of the musics of the world without hierarchies, comprehending these musics according to the system of thought of their own cultures. It makes this science typical of our present time, and having it as privileged corpus of analysis may shed light upon the conditions for the forging of the discourse of diversity, revealing the forces involved on it and who is in the position to pronounce it. This article attempts to understand those issues, basing its research on music dictionaries and encyclopedias from the past three centuries, providing a historical overview for comparison, as much as a lucid picture of the present. These objects are valuable, since they are supposed to reunite all the human knowledge within their areas, complexifying the relation between universal and particular. As in the study here presented about the Garland Encyclopedia of World Music, such corpuses may reveal that the discourse of diversity has its rules of differences and inequalities.

Keywords

Music – ethnomusicology – encyclopedia – dictionaries – Garland – globalization – diversity.

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The transcriptions of popular songs in Travels in Brazil by Spix and Martius

Silvio Augusto Merhy 

Abstract

The monumental work Spix and Martius’ Journey into Brazil includes a musical supplement containing songs transcribed in graphic notation – “Brazilian Popular Songs and Indigenous Melodies”. The fact that an artistic production can be introduced as an attachment to a scientific report reveals that art and science were conceived as cultural expressions, that art was not only a set of artistic goods and science not only a na-tural system of rules. The analysis of transcribed songs led to a debate on the techniques for transcribing and registering songs, and the literate European vision of musical practices in Brazilian regions in the 19th century.

Keywords

Musical transcription – popular song – travel report.

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The Lundu enigma

Edilson Vicente de Lima 

Abstract

This article aims at discussing the lundu, a musical genre whose origins lies in the blending of choreographic and musical elements from different social strata of the Luso-Brazilian world in the late eighteenth century. The discussion of historical aspects as well as stylistic features is based on specific sources of its historiography, iconography, and musical manuscripts, transcriptions and editions. This study proposes that the lundu music can be considered an appropriation – or ‘tropicalization’ – of the classical style prevailing at that time, through elements from the Black culture that were key to the development that musical genre.

Keywords

Lundu – modinha – history of Brazilian music – classical style.

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Recycling God’s Songs: modernization and adaptation of sacred music in nineteenth-century Brazil

Marshal Gaioso Pinto 

Abstract

Balthasar de Freitas’s collection is a private collection of musical documents, located in the city of Jaraguá, State of Goiás, Brazil. It holds over six hundred pieces of music, divided into four sub collections. The manuscripts go from 1836 to the 1930s, with a considerable number of undated copies. Usually the works were copied more than once and it is possible to find cases where the musical style seems to be incompatible with the date of the manuscript. Analysis of the manuscripts reveals that in the cases in which a work was copied more than once, these copies tend to present an adaptation of the instrumentation and sometimes a modernization of the notation. Thus, violin parts were rewritten for clarinets and pistons, and violoncello and double bass parts for helicons and ophicleides. New parts for trombones and saxhorns were also created in order to replace the continuo. Moreover, there were changes in clefs, time signatures, and even key signatures. All these changes seem to reflect a strong tendency of the music in Brazil during the nineteenth century: the growth of wind bands. It is also possible that another trend had an influence on Freitas’s collection, the gradual decline of professionalism of the musicians, especially in the gold mining regions. Musicians who were no longer able to dedicate themselves full-time to musical activity began to recycle the old repertory in order to respond to the demands of their times.

Keywords

Goiás – windband – musical manuscripts – musical collections.

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MEMORY

The legacy of Francisco Curt Lange (1903- 1997)

Régis Duprat 

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REVIEWS

Rogério Budasz, Teatro e música na América Portuguesa: convenções, repertório, raça, gênero e poder

Marcelo Campos Hazan 

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André Cardoso, A Música na Capela Real e Imperial do Rio de Janeiro e A Música na Corte de D. João VI, 1808-1821

Maria Alice Volpe 

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Velhas e Novas Cirandas: Música para Fagote e Orquestra, Fábio Cury e Orquestra Amazonas Filarmônica

Aloysio Fagerlande 

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INTERVIEW

Régis Duprat in his 80th anniversary

Ilza Nogueira 

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BRAZILIAN MUSIC ARCHIVE

Introduction: José Joaquim dos Santos (1747-1801) and the “Hymn for Lauds of the Nativity of Our Lord Jesus Christ”

André Cardoso 

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Hymnus ad Laudes in Nativitate Domini Nostri Jesu Christi 

José Joaquim dos Santos (edition by André Cardoso)

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