RBM 24/1

The long nineteenth century




     
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This volume presents the guiding theme “The long nineteenth century”, and proposes critical reflections on issues related to music in Brazil during that period, focusing particularly on identity and alterity from different perspectives as approached by cultural criticism, reception history, sociology, style studies, cultural history, and popular music studies. It counts on the contributions of Ralph Locke (University of Rochester), Marcos Virmond and Irandi Daroz (Sacred Heart University), Zoltan Paulinyi (University of Evora), Márcio Páscoa (State University of Amazonas), Lutero Rodrigues (Sao Paulo State University), João Vidal (UFRJ), Marcelo Verzoni (UFRJ) and Uliana Ferlim (University of Brasilia).

The tribute to Jaime Diniz by Ricardo Lins is followed by reviews of Fábio Zanon (Royal Academy of Music, London) and Maria Lúcia Pascoal (Unicamp) on recently published books.

The RBM pays tribute to Brazilian music historian Vasco Mariz for his 90th birthday with the interview of Ricardo Tacuchian (Unirio and the Brazilian Academy of Music).

André Cardoso (UFRJ, Brazilian Academy of Music) presents the score “Gavota” and “Minueto” for strings from O Contratador dos Diamantes, by Francisco Braga, located in the collection of this Brazilian institution, completing the course of this volume devoted to the nineteenth century.


EDITORIAL

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ARTICLES


A Broader View of Musical Exoticism

Ralph P. Locke 

Abstract

Most previous writings on musical exoticism reflect the unspoken assumption that a work is perceived by the listener as exotic only if it incorporates distinctively foreign or otherwise highly unusual elements of musical style. This “Exotic Style Only” Paradigm often proves revelatory, especially for purely instrumental works. In operas and other musicodramatic works set in exotic locales, by contrast, music is heard within a narrative “frame” that shapes the listener’s response. Yet the existing literature on “the exotic in music” tends to restrict its attention to those few scenes or passages (in such works) that “sound non-Western.” It also tends to leave unmentioned the many Baroque-era operas and dramatic oratorios that focus on despicable Eastern tyrants. The present article proposes an “All the Music in Full Context” Paradigm to help make sense of a variety of exotic portrayals that are strikingly diverse in message and means. Relevant issues are discussed by analysing some passages of the following works: Rameau’s Les Indes galantes; Belshazzar, by Handel; Bizet’s Carmen; and Puccini’s Madama Butterfly. In each case, the full range of artistic components—including musical devices that lie within or outside the traditional exotic vocabulary—enriches our understanding of how diversely, powerfully, sometimes disturbingly

Keywords

Opera – 18th – 19th century – exoticism.

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Orientalism and musicodramatic discourse in the “Notturno” from Condor by Carlos Gomes

Marcos Virmond e Irandi Daroz 

Abstract

Condor was premiered at La Scala in Milan in 1891. Based on an oriental subject, the opera had no further success due, in part, to its outmoded libretto. However, the music of Gomes shows a significant advancement towards a new approach to melodic structure and motivic cohesion. The works of Carlos Gomes have been poorly discussed in terms of musical analysis, an essential way to review the myth and to reveal the true mature and competent artist. This article aims to analyze the relations between musical and dramatic discourse of the “Notturno” that precedes the third act of Condor, considering the conventions of exoticist opera as well as broader musicodramatic approaches in late nineteenth-century opera. This study reaches the conclusion that the “Notturno” presents a summing up of the dramatic events of the precedent acts, and sets up to the final act of the opera.

Keywords

musical analysis – opera – orientalism – exoticism – Antonio Carlos Gomes – 19th century – music in Brazil. 

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Transcriptions for violin solo, by Flausino Vale

Zoltan Paulinyi 

Abstract

A recent release of new works from the Flausino Vale’s (1894–1954) collection allowed access to more than one hundred of his transcriptions for solo violin. This article fully publishes three works in this category: Bernardino Belém de Souza’s “A Casinha Pequenina” (The little house), variations upon Franz Lehár’s song “Paganini” and the first part of Chopin’s Étude n° 3 opus 10, renamed to “Tristeza Eterna – canção” (Eternal sorrow – song) by Flausino. The first piece shows transcription creativity under two aspects: with and without bow. The second uses the transcription as a theme for developing an original work. The third explores the polyphonic technique on the violin. These works intend to show that transcriptions can add value to original compositions..

Keywords

Flausino Vale – transcription – arrangement – violin solo – 19th century – 20th century – music in Brazil.

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Opera as a reflection on the construction of space and identity in nineteenth-century Amazon

Márcio Páscoa 

Abstract

The nineteenth century testified a shift of strategy for space and cultural trends in Amazon, Brazil. Supported by huge revenues from Rubber Boom, the Amazon region attained wealth that were reversed in diverse goods. Opera served not only to make ‘bourgeois’ statements but transformed itself in a vehicle to discuss ideas about Mankind, identity and environment.

Keywords

opera – Brazil – Amazon – 19th century – identity – music in Brazil.

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Carlos Gomes, the Modernists and Mário de Andrade

Lutero Rodrigues

Abstract

Suported by a bibliographic research, the following article engages in evaluating the real dimension of the modernist manifestations contrary to Carlos Gomes, mainly around the Modern Art Week, and comparing them with their posterior repercussion. It accompanies the manner of those manifestations, until the end of the modernist current, and, from that accompanying on, focuses on the study of the plentiful references made to Carlos Gomes, existent in referential texts of Mário de Andrade, until the end of his life. It aims, then, at situating what have happened with the composer in a wider historical and cultural context..

Keywords

Carlos Gomes – Modernism – Mário de Andrade – opera – 19th century – 20th century – music in Brazil.

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Nepomuceno and Max Bruch: an analysis on a (recently discovered) connection

João Vida 

Abstract

The article deals with the part of Nepomuceno’s education in Germany corresponding to his studies at the Akademie der Künste in Berlin, focusing the theme in relation to the (until now unknown) information that the composer studied at the institution not only with Heinrich von Herzogenberg, but also with the famous composer Max Bruch. It is seek therefore, in addition to an approach observing Nepomuceno’s cosmopolitism (depicted in the part of his oeuvre in which no attempts toward a ‘national music’ is to be found), the clarification of the conditions under which this contact – of which not even the composer himself gave notice – took place. As an example of the possible influence of Bruch on Nepomuceno’s music, a brief analysis of the first movement of his String Quartet n. 3 in D minor is presented, a work whose date of composition corresponds to the period in which he took part in the Meisterschulen für musikalische Komposition of that institution..

Keywords

Alberto Nepomuceno – Max Bruch – Akademie der Künste in Berlin – 19th century – music in Brazil – string quartet.

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Chiquinha Gonzaga and Ernesto Nazareth: two mentalities and two paths

Marcelo Verzoni

Abstract

This article points out the differences between the composer-pianists Chiquinha Gonzaga (1847- 1935) and Ernesto Nazareth (1863-1934), who worked extensively in Rio de Janeiro’s musical life since the second half of the nineteenth century to the early years of the 1930s. Its line of reasoning calls attention to the fact that both musicians were treated in the same way by different authors of Music History in Brazil. That reductionist and simplistic approach can be explained by the fact these authors were mostly associated with concert music and did not carry a deep research on the music by popular artists. By examining issues of family origin, social formation, political and aesthetic positions, individual psychological characteristics, as well as the social milieu and the kind of public they aimed to reach, this article brings to light the profound differences between Gonzaga’s and Nazareth’s personalities and musical productions.

Keywords

Chiquinha Gonzaga – Ernesto Nazareth – piano – salon music – tango – polca – habanera – 19th century – music in Brazil.

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Catulo da Paixão Cearense and the struggle of the songwriters at the turn of the 19th to the 20th century in Rio de Janeiro

Uliana Dias Campos Ferlim

Abstract

The purpose of this article is to demonstrate, through the life of Catulo da Paixão Cearense, the ideas about music making mostly discussed at the turn of the 19th to the 20th century in Rio de Janeiro. Catulo, a poet who shared with other musicians a project for artistic recognition, intended to modernize the art of the modinha. Conceptions on music making, specially on poetic-music making of songs, are the main topics of this article, resulted not only from Catulo´s own words, but also from the practices of individuals of a wide social group that included artists, musicians, writers, journalists and intellectuals. It discusses issues such as national identity, social identity of the artists, and a new cultural industry which was developing in the capital of Brazil. Each actor established different meanings for music making.

Keywords

modinha – popular music – Rio de Janeiro – Catulo da Paixão Cearense – national identity – cultural industry – 19th century – 20th century – music in Brazil.

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MEMORY

The legacy of Jaime Diniz (1924-1989)

Ricardo Meira Lins 

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REVIEWS

Humberto Amorim, Heitor Villa-Lobos e o Violão.

Fábio Zanon

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Jorge Peixinho, live memory.

Maria Lúcia Pascoal

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INTERVIEW

Vasco Mariz in his 90th anniversary: a researcher dedicated to Brazilian music

Ricardo Tacuchian

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BRAZILIAN MUSIC ARCHIVE

Introduction to “Gavota” and “Minueto” from O contratador dos diamantes, by Francisco Braga

André Cardoso

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 “Gavota” and “Minuete” from O contractador dos diamantes

Francisco Braga (1868-1945)

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