RBM 24/2

Tradition and innovation in the twentieth century




     
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This issue of RBM  poses the theme “Tradition and innovation in the twentieth century.” It presents critical and analytical perspectives relevant to the study of music in Brazil during the period, particularly focusing on the challenges of innovation and the search for tradition, whether in the context of the construction of national identity or at a later time when expressing a will to break free of those aesthetic and ideological ties. It counts on the contributions of Elliott Antokoletz (The University of Texas at Austin), Marcos Branda Lacerda (Univeristy of Sao Paulo) e Maria Alice Volpe (Federal University of Rio de Janeiro), Rodolfo Coelho de Souza (Univeristy of Sao Paulo at Ribeirão Preto), Ricardo Tacuchian (Federal University of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazilian Academy of Music), José Fortunato Fernandes (Federal University of Mato Grosso) and Ilza Nogueira (Federal University of Paraiba, Brazilian Academy of Music). In place of an interview, the RBM pays tribute to Brazilian composer Edino Krieger with the transcription of his lecture held at UFRJ School of Music at the opening of the academic year 2008, on the occasion of his 80th birthday. This volume devoted to Brazilian music of the twentieth century arrives under the impact of the loss of two emblematic composers, Osvaldo Lacerda and Almeida Prado, paying tribute to them in the section Memory, respectively, with texts by Eudóxia de Barros (Brazilian Academy of Music) e Régis Duprat (Univeristy of Sao Paulo, Brazilian Academy of Music). The Brazilian Music Archive section is of particular importance in this issue, since it contains the announcement of André Cardoso (UFRJ, Brazilian Academy of Music) on the discovery of Brazil's oldest method of bass, dated 1838, written by Lino José Nunes, which was found in the Alberto Nepomuceno Library.


EDITORIAL

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ARTICLES


From polymodal chromaticism to symmetrical pitch construction in the musical language of Villa-Lobos

Elliott Antokoletz

Abstract

The intention in this essay is to show how the transformation of folk modalities into more abstract modernistic pitch constructions is reflected in the music of Brazilian composer Heitor Villa-Lobos. The larger trend toward modal transformation and the establishment of a new harmonic language in the early twentieth century is exemplified in a study of his Choros no. 10 (1926). Composers of various national backgrounds commonly derived symmetrical pitch constructions from the pentatonic and modal materials of their folk-music sources, the varied types of pitch collections in their works ranging from the pentatonic and modal constructions of folk music to the more abstract modernistic sonorities of polymodal combination as well as whole-tone, octatonic, and various hybrid combinations derived from them. In Choros no. 10, while polymodal chromatic constructions are transformed from octatonic to pentatonic structural blocks as the basis of a new concept of tonality and progression, the interactions of these sonorities within the larger rhythmic-timbral context of the work contribute to the composer’s intended general evocation of various natural qualities of Brazil.

Keywords

20th century – Brazilian music – modernism – Heitor Villa-Lobos – musical analysis.

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Harmonic aspects of Choros n. 4 by Villa-Lobos and the modernist language

Marcos Branda Lacerda

Abstract

This work starts with a brief discussion on the concept of harmonic gender as viewed by pioneer studies in analysis of modernist repertoire, especially of works of Debussy and Stravinsky. As we know, these two composers play an important role in the stylistic formation of Villa-Lobos. Then all the moments that make up the first part of Choros no. 4 of the Brazilian composer are discussed. The study reveals similarities in the choice of sources of harmonic construction, and also of formal articulation of these sources. This paper proposes to seek a greater understanding of Villa-Lobos presence amongst his contemporaries and of the dialogue he established with modern art..

Keywords

20th century – Brazilian music – modernism – Heitor Villa-Lobos – musical analysis.

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The Manuscript P38.1.1 and the “practical table” by Villa-Lobos

Maria Alice Volpe

Abstract


Textual criticism of the Manuscript P 38.1.1, belonging to the documentary set of the symphonic poem Tédio de Alvorada and its reuse in the ballet-symphonic poem Uirapuru, by Heitor Villa-Lobos. Aims to trace the compositional thinking and to interface with the analytical theory adopted by Antokoletz (1992) and Volpe (2001). The textual criticism points to a possible convergence between the reasoning expressed in preliminary notes of the Brazilian composer and the analytical theory that has proved so effective to systematize non-functional tonal music.

Keywords

20th century – Brazilian music – modernism – Heitor Villa-Lobos – textual criticism – musical analysis.

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Opera Malazarte: Brazilianess in the modernist thinking of Graça Aranha and Lorenzo Fernândez

José Fortunato Fernandes

Abstract

The study of the Modernism in Brazil shows the formation of the Brazilian character conception according to that movement shows new definitions or new ways of interpreting the national way of thinking and the ways for its development. Graça Aranha, author of the Malazarte opera libretto, when he showed an interest for the Brazilian reality he introduced a project for the construction of a national culture based on the establishment of a new relationship with the Brazilian nature mainly through the intuition and integration. In the libretto we find depicted the traditions, festivals and popular instruments. The folkloric element was one of the characteristics in Lorenzo Fernândez’s works. His participation in the modernist movement was through the association of his music with the literature and his opera was the first, in the domain of the Brazilian lyrical theater, where some concern was shown for the Brazilian musical characters.

Keywords

20th century – Brazilian music – national identity – modernism – opera – Lorenzo Fernândez – Graça

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The reception of twelve-tone theories in the last string quartets by Cláudio Santoro

Rodolfo Coelho de Souza

Abstract

This paper intends to show the influences that the twelve-tone theory, according to Eimert and Krenek, may have directly had on the composition of Santoro’s last two string quartets. We prove that the theory of the all-interval series, presented by Eimert, contributed to the design of a twelve-tone series used by Santoro. We also show that Eimert’s theory of angular mirroring of the series, also known as multiplication of the series, suggested to Santoro a model of hybridization between the classical tonal modulation procedure and the model of transpositions of the twelve-tone series. The analysis proved yet, that Santoro’s twelve-tone technique exhibits a consistence equivalent to that of the referential twelve-tone serial composers, despite the widespread image that he made a free use of the technique.

Keywords

20th century – Brazilian music – twelve-tone music – serial music – cultural hybridism – Cláudio Santoro.

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Musical creation in dialogue with political-cultural context: the case of Bahia’s Composers Group

Ilza Nogueira

Abstract

The present study focuses on the social-political-economic-cultural context which circumscribed the “Composers Group of Bahia”, a musical movement that flourished in Salvador, Bahia, between 1966 and 1975. It initially observes the intense cultural development led by the University in the period between 1954 (when the music school of the University was founded by Hans-Joachim Koellreutter) and 1961 (end of the long-term administration of President Edgard Santos). This period can be considered the “crib” of the artistic intellectuality which generated and nourished the movement. Subsequently, the article focuses the period between 1962 and 1975, during which the Group was formed and stayed active. Considering that, from 1964 on, Brazilian Universities operated under the rules of the military dictatorship, it will be observed that the Group’s ideological motivation necessarily reflects cultural censorship and intellectual repression as well as artistic resistance.

Keywords

20th century – music in Brazil – institutional history – School of Music at UFBA – Composers Group of Bahia.

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System-T and post-modernity

Ricardo Tacuchian

Abstract

The T-system creator discloses the relationships between his compositional tool and the post modernism. He analyses different concepts of post modernism and reveals how current Cultural Studies have influenced his creative path. At last, the author comments on some theoretical aspects of the T-system.

Keywords

20th Century – music in Brazil – postmodern – music theory.

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MEMORY

Osvaldo Lacerda, a life (1927-2011)

Eudóxia de Barros

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Tribute to Almeida Prado (1943-2010): the composer in his own words

Régis Duprat

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REVIEWS

Manoel Aranha Corrêa do Lago, O Círculo Veloso-Guerra e Darius Milhaud no Brasil: modernismo musical no Rio de Janeiro antes da Semana

Régis Duprat and Maria Alice Volpe

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ESPECIAL

Keynote speech at the School of Music, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro by the occasion of the composers’s 80th birthday

Edino Krieger

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BRAZILIAN MUSIC ARCHIVE

A Method for Double Bass from 19th-century Brazil (1838): Lino José Nunes

André Cardoso

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 Course Lessons for the Double Bass from the Practical Method or Complete Studies for the Double Bass (edition by André Cardoso)

Lino José Nunes

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