RBM 25/1

Analyses of popular music




     
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The theme “Analyses of popular music” proposes an approach to musical analysis toward cultural criticism, reiterating the possibilities of dialogue and reconciliation of theoretical and political positions put in alleged confrontations and antagonisms.

In the opening article, Juan Pablo González (Universidad Alberto Hurtado, Santiago, Chile) offers a cultural critique that permeates Chile, Argentina and Brazil, from 1959 until the 2000s, when tackling a genre able to articulate continuities and social change, specifically a popular song that involved issues of behavior, construction of the feminine, cultural industry and international politics. In the same vein, Robin Moore (University of Texas, Austin, USA) discusses the popular song in Cuba, specifically in the decades from 1980 to 2000, in its historical and political context, and discusses the formation of social boundaries and the reinvention of identities by reworking of traditional genres, and articulating tensions between tradition and local and global changes.

The following four articles provide a specifically musical-analytical approach. Carlos Almada (Federal University of Rio de Janeiro) presents a study on the Brazilian genre choro from the perspective of the Generative Theory of Tonal Music. Rodrigo Marconi (Foundation for Technical College of the State of Rio de Janeiro) discusses the musical language of Rogério Duprat, leading arranger of the Tropicália movement, by addressing the work “Acrilírico,” co-authored with Caetano Veloso, in order to identify the use of traditional and vanguard compositional techniques. Carlos Frank Michael Kuehn (Federal University of the State of Rio de Janeiro) examines the Symphony of Rio de Janeiro (1954) – recorded with Radamés Gnattali’s orchestral arrangement –, a work that stands at the beginning of the career of composers Antonio Carlos Jobim and Billy Blanco, and, historically, in the emergence of the Bossa Nova musical movement. Luiz de Carvalho Duarte (University of Brasília) addresses the partnership between Tom Jobim and Claus Ogerman, their diverse forms of interaction and intervention, reformulating the concept of arrangement based on the “ontology of the musical work.”

In the next article, Leandro Ribeiro Pereira (Brazilian Conservatory of Music) presents a historical study with a systematic survey of orchestral arrangers of Brazilian popular music who served on the National Radio of Rio de Janeiro between the 1930s and 1960s, covering the musical and institutional documentation held by the Foundation Museum of Image and Sound in Rio de Janeiro. Pursuing the research about the golden age of Brazilian radio, Maria Elisa Pasqualini (Theatro Municipal of Sao Paulo and Padre Anchieta Foundation) presents a similar study on the orchestral arrangers of the Record Radio of São Paulo.

In the Memory section, the RBM pays tribute to the composer Rogério Duprat, who would be 80 years old this year, with an article of Maria Alice Volpe (Federal University of Rio de Janeiro) and his brother Régis Duprat (University of São Paulo). A brief biography of the composer, who played a decisive role in the two most important musical movements in Brazil in the 1960s, the Música Nova and Tropicália, is followed by a selection of statements collected in contemporary periodicals, putting into perspective the issues that permeate Rogério Duprat’s thinking throughout his life.

This issue’s interview, conducted by Tom Moore (Duke University), is dedicated to the composer Steven Mackey, recalling the history of a rock and roll musician who turned to contemporary music, and came to occupy the chair of composition, succeeding Milton Babbitt at Princeton University, USA. The professional trajectories of these two composers, the Brazilian and the American, express the concerns guiding the dialogue that this issue of the RBM intends to incite.

In the Brazilian Music Archive section, André Cardoso (Federal University of Rio de Janeiro and the Brazilian Academy of Music) presents an introduction to the edition here published of José Maurício Nunes Garcia’s Gradual Virgo Dei Genitrix CPM 137 (1795), located in the collection of Alberto Nepomuceno Library. I repeatedly thank the editorial staff of RBM for their dedication to this project: Francisco Conte, Gustavo Costa, Mônica Machado, Maria Celina Machado, Charles- Antoine Guillemette, and more particularly Márcia Carnaval for RBM’s highly praised graphical design and beautiful covers. I renew my thanks to the Director of the School of Music of UFRJ, André Cardoso, and the Head of Graduate Studies Program in Music, Marcos Nogueira, for their support and dialogue. Thanks again to my colleagues on the Deliberative Committee of the Graduate Studies Program in Music and RBM Executive Committee: Marcelo Verzoni, Maria José Chevitarese, Pauxy Gentil Nunes e Thelma Sydenstricker Álvares. Further thanks go to all members of the Editorial Advisory Board and ad hoc referees for their expertise and readiness to respond to our demands.

EDITORIAL

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ARTICLES


“Marcianita”: music and women mistimed

Juan Pablo González 

Abstract

This article explores the meanings that popular song can acquire for specific groups of people in particular historical moments depending on its musical, literary and performative content. To this end, the article discusses the fox song “Marcianita” and its recordings in Chile, Argentina and Brazil since 1959. This song has been understood differently in its successive recordings, resisting while celebrating the arrival of rock and roll. The article discusses the paradoxes of this resistance from the music industry and the adult world, which seeks to avoid a present time perceived as threatening in times of Cold War, with a simultaneous act of restoration of the past and the utopia of the future. We also review the fantastic construction of the feminine in “Marcianita” as an expression of frustration of the adult world to changes in social behavior caused by the generation of rock and roll.

Keywords

20th century – Latin America – popular music – gender – cultural criticism.

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Havana in the nueva trova repertoire of Gerardo Alfonso

Robin Moore 

Abstract

The identity of cities such as Havana are linked to historical processes, embedded in narratives of people, are rerrecreated through the everyday practices of cultural life. Music itself can be used by performers to refashion their surroundings, putting new projections of experience into circulation. The places constructed through music may be influenced by musical styles from abroad; they frequently create or reinforce social boundaries of various kinds, and emphasize alternative ways of conceiving self and other. Many of these tendencies are evident in the work of Cuban trovador Gerardo Alfonso. An Afro-Cuban performer, Alfonso uses music as a means of commenting on life in Havana, constantly presenting musical and textual references unique to that location. Lyrically, Alfonso’s songs deal with themes such as vagrancy and tourism. Musically, his clever reworkings of traditional genres create tensions between conceptions of localism and globalism, modernism and tradition.

Keywords

20th century – Cuban music – nueva trova – city culture – Gerardo Alfonso – Havana.

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The Brazilian choro as archetypal model of the Generativev Theory of Tonal Music

Carlos Almada

Abstract

This paper presents a study about the genre choro, under a perspective based on the Theory Generative of Tonal Music (Lerdahl & Jackendoff, 1983). The focus is on a group of six proprieties, which define the archetypical pattern of this theory. The study aims at demonstrating that, due to its peculiarities, the choro candidates as one exemplar of this pattern. As the central methodology are the elaboration and the subsequent analysis (according to parameters estabilished by the six proprieties) of the metrical, grouping, time-span, and prolongational structures of a segment of a representative choro (Proezas de Solon, by Pixinguinha and Benedito Lacerda). As a result of the study we can observe a strong conformation of the analized piece to the pattern proposed by the Generative Theory.

Keywords

20th century – Brazilian popular music – choro – Theory Generative of Tonal Music – archetypicalvpattern.

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Tradition and vanguard in “Acrilírico”, by Caetano Veloso and Rogério Duprat

Rodrigo Marconi 

Abstract

Rogério Duprat was a composer who widely acted in many trends of Brazilian music. He composed erudite songs, besides making arrangements for Brazilian popular songs, sound tracks and advertising jingles. This article is a draft of Duprat’s work and his performance as the most important musical arranger from the Tropicália movement, having as main objective, from the analysis of “Acrilírico”, of Caetano Veloso and Duprat himself, detect in his arrangements the use of compositional tools, both traditional and vanguard.

Keywords

20th century – Brazilian popular music – Rogério Duprat – arrangement and composition – tradition and vanguard – manifestos.

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Samba, sun, mountains, sea: the Symphony of Rio de Janeiro by Tom Jobim, Billy Blanco and Radamés Gnattali

Frank Michael Carlos Kuehn

Abstract

This article examines the Symphony of Rio de Janeiro (1954) as a musical composition historically situated between the early career of Antonio Carlos Jobim and Billy Blanco, on one side, and the emergence of the bossa nova movement, on the other. As the product of a collective compositional effort, the Symphony was recorded with orchestra arrangement by Radamés Gnattali. As a pleasant experience of two young composers both searching for an individual musical language and compositional style, embodies a wealth of meanings. The musical analysis is based on an methodology that employs aural strategies and technical tools in its interpretation. The Symphony revealed to be modern for its time, anticipating the bossa nova in its harmonic and melodic devices, as well as in its poetic themes.

Keywords

20th century – Brazilian popular music – bossa nova – Antonio Carlos Jobim – Billy Blanco – Radamés Gnattali.

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Tom Jobim and Claus Ogerman: the onthology of musical arrangement

Luiz de Carvalho Duarte 

Abstract

This article discusses the partnership between Tom Jobim and Claus Ogerman, in the period between 1963 and 1980, contextualized in three lines of work identified in the career of the Brazilian composer. It discusses the concept of arrangement based on the “ontology of the musical work”, as proposed by Treitler (1993), and offers an analysis of the songs “Wave” and “If everyone were like you”, based on the original manuscripts of the composer and the arranger as well as sound recordings of the time, demonstrating the different ways in which the arranger can shape a work, from the literal transcription of the composer’s idea until the complete reelaboration of a musical work in its formal, melodic and harmonic aspects. The arrangement constitutes a process that circumscribes a musical idea, even though circumstantially, in a sound utterance. and thus integrates the musical work as a whole in a process that, at the same time, reveals and transfigures the work’s identity.

Keywords

20th century – Brazilian popular music – bossa nova – Tom Jobim – Claus Ogerman – arrangement.

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The music arrangers of National Radio of Rio de Janeiro, 1930s-1960s

Leandro Ribeiro Pereira

Abstract

This article presents a systematic survey of orchestral arrangers of Brazilian popular music who have served the National Radio of Rio de Janeiro, in the period between the 1930s and 1930 and 1960. Emphasizes the actions of five arrangers – Radamés Gnattali, Lyrio Panicali, Gustavo de Carvalho, César Guerra-Peixe and Lindolfo Gomes Gaya – and presents information on some others, in a total of 59 arrangers and conductors who acted in 31 radio programs. The remaining documentation has allowed to distinguish the arrangers who had employment with the National Radio as wess as their role played and the value of the remuneration. The survey addressed 20,000 musical manuscripts belonging to National Radio Collection which are currently held by the Fundação Museu da Imagem e do Som do Rio de Janeiro at Lapa headquarters and National Radio headquarters, in addition to institutional records (catalogue cards and dossiers), database of sound files, music recordings and programs.

Keywords

20th century – Brazilian popular music –National Radio of Rio de Janeiro – arrangement.

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The music arrangers of Record Radio of Sao Paulo, 1928-1965

Maria Elisa Pasqualini

Abstract

History of the Record Radio of São Paulo through the musical repertoire performed live at its auditorium. The period covered in this study was determined by the chronology of the primary sources, and comprises the founding of Record in 1928 until 1965, the last date present in printed and manuscript scores of 3,216 arrangements and original compositions used by the orchestra of the radio. This musical repertoire, composed of songs with orchestral arrangements, is part of the so-called “golden era of radio”. This study presents a reference section containing entries on arrangers, musicians, singers and instrumental ensembles; and includes a reflection on the concept of arrangement, genre, instrumentation and orchestration.

Keywords

20th century – Brazilian popular music – Record Radio – arrangement – song.

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MEMORY

Tribute to Rogério Duprat (1932-2006)

Maria Alice Volpe and Régis Duprat

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INTERVIEW

An interview with the American composer Steven Mackey

Tom Moore

Abstract

The article presents an interview with composer Steven Mackey, now celebrating twentyfive years as professor of composition at Princeton University, one of the leading universities in the USA. The interview discusses details of the composer’s education and career, and focuses on recent works.

Keywords

Composers – composition – contemporary music – biography – United States/p>

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BRAZILIAN MUSIC ARCHIVE

Introduction to the Gradual Virgo Dei Genitrix CPM 137 (1795) by José Maurício Nunes Garcia

André Cardoso

Abstract

This introduction to the edition of the Gradual for Our Lady Virgo Dei Genitrix CPM 137 (1795), by José Maurício Nunes Garcia, provides short biographical information and some data about the graduales by the same composer, found in the musical manuscript collection of the Alberto Nepomuceno Library of the School of Music at UFRJ, and in other archives. It also discusses the differences in instrumentation between the two extant sets of copies in handwritten parts. Finally it presents some arguments to establish a version of the score, the editorial procedures, as well as the original text in Latin, its insertion in the liturgy and its translation to Portuguese.

Keywords

José Maurício Nunes Garcia – sacred music – Brazil – 18th century – musicological edition.

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Gradual Virgo Dei Genitrix CPM 137 (1795) (edition by André Cardoso)

Pe. José Maurício Nunes Garcia (1767-1830)

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