RBM 28/2

World System




     
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The Revista Brasileira de Música (Brazilian Journal of Music)embarks on its ninth decade celebrating Brazilian music and its intersections with the musical culture of other countries and international musicological thinking. The RBM consolidates its editorial policy of internationalization and democratization of access to knowledge, and seeks to promote the improvement of musicological approaches and to reformulate its interdisciplinary postures. ry postures.

The main theme “World System” of this volume refers to the socio-cultural relations of music in different geo-cultural contexts. The term “world system” is borrowed from the sociologist Immanuel Wallerstein with the aim of suggesting that this set of texts can be read from the perspective of their subjects as part of a larger system, which resulted in institutionalized structures of knowledge, historically situated, and brought by capitalism, resulting in worldviews and relations between “center” and “periphery”.

RBM wishes to acknowledge its editorial team for their dedication to this project, welcoming the new Director of the School of Music of UFRJ, Maria José Chevitarese. The RBM Editorial Board reiterates the deepest gratitude to the former Head of the Graduate Studies Program in Music, Marcos Nogueira, for their continued support to this publication, which is also extensive to the current Head of the Graduate Studies Program in Music, Pauxy Gentil Nunes. Thanks also to my colleagues on the Deliberative Committee of the Graduate Studies Program in Music and the RBM Executive Committee; and further thanks go to all members of the Editorial Advisory Board and ad hoc referees for their expertise and readiness to respond to our demands. Thanks repeatedly to Marcia Carnival by the fine graphic design she provided to RBM, and to Francisco Conte for its site.

May this issue incite and challenge the reader.

 

EDITORIAL

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ARTICLES


Musicology: center and periphery in the world system

Régis Duprat and Maria Alice Volpe 

Abstract

Discusses the diversity in Latin American etnohistorical musicology and actions of cooperation between the research community, especially aiming at the scientific and institutional policies in the light of historical macrosociology and socio-anthropology.

Keywords

Musicology – scientific policy – institutional policy – sociology of knowledge – ethnohistory.

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Collections of Italian opera manuscripts in different countries and the Alberto Nepomuceno Library of the EM-UFRJ

Philip Gossett 

Abstract

Essay on the various collections of musical manuscripts of Italian opera of the nineteenth century in numerous files outside Italy, including Spain, Portugal, Denmark, Russia, the United States and Brazil, with emphasis on the collection of rare books from the Library "Alberto Nepomuceno" the Music School of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. The importance of these collections lies in the fact remain as unique sources of repertoire, due to the documentation of loss in Italy, especially after the massive destruction of Ricordi and Sonzogno Archives in Milan during World War This essay offers research possibilities in order to guide future studies.

Keywords

Music archive – music library – dissemination – Italian opera – Brazilian archives – Alberto Nepomuceno Library.

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Ad dissonantiam per consonantiam”: the scope and limits of Darius Milhaud´s system of “Polytonalité harmonique”: the immanent and poietic levels (Part 1)

Manoel Aranha Corrêa do Lago

Abstract

A frequent feature in early twentieth-century music, which gained enormous impulse from Stravinsky’s introduction of complex polyharmonies in the Rite of Spring, has been the utilization of “dissonant” harmonic aggregates, presenting the peculiarity of being decomposable into traditional consonant units, such as perfect triads and “dominant 7th” chords. In a 1923 text, Darius Milhaud attempted to provide both a rationale and a taxonomy for these “new chords” through a system of “harmonic polytonality”. It will be argued along this paper that Milhaud´s approach would be particularly enriched if seen, on the one hand, as a method for generating a particular “family” of unordered pitch-class sets, which are found not only in Stravinsky’s fase russe works but also among as different composers as Ravel, Ives, Villa-Lobos Britten or Messiaen; and, on the other hand, in the perspective of Molino & Nattiez’s tripartition theory. The first part of this article discusses the “immanent” and “poietic” levels.

Keywords

Harmonic polytonality – polyharmony – set theory – tripartition – Carnatic modes – Darius Milhaud – Igor Stravinsky.

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Elsie Houston’s Chants Populaies du Brésil: research on the Brazilian musical folklore and artistic repertoire, 1920s-1940s

Isabel Bertevelli

Abstract

This article deals with the role of the singer Elsie Houston in promoting Brazilian music abroad, through research and collection themes of musical folklore, lectures e texts published in journals. Elsie Houston recorded some of these songs in book and recordings, having had direct contact with the folk music in his travels around the North and Northeast, along with her husband Benjamin Peret. The singer had a professional relationship with relevant Andrade and Heitor Villa-Lobos, who introduced the four important personalities of the time, Guilherme Pereira de Melo (Bahia), Manoel Lemos (North Paraíba), Maestro Franco (Manaus) and Manoel Augusto dos Santos (Pernambuco). The book Chants populaires du Brésil (1930) was written by the singer in Brazil at the request of the International Committee of the League of Nations, at Sorbonne, and belongs to her first series of studies on Brazilian folklore. The book contains a collection of forty-two melodies, with the introduction of the French musicologist Philipe Stern, in which the repertoire is discussed by genre.

Keywords

Brazilian music – musical nationalism – musical folklore – Brazilian music historiography – Elsie Houston.

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Systemic modeling of Camargo Guarnieri’s Ponteio Nº  2 according to the theory of contours

Liduino Pitombeira

Abstract

In this paper, we examine a compositional methodology based upon intertextual parametric reconfiguration called systemic modeling. To this end, we use the theory of contours in order to determine a hypothetical compositional system for the Ponteio Nº 2 by Camargo Guarnieri. This system will be determined by the melodic contour analysis and a parametric generalization procedure, which will allow the proposal of a model for the work, expressed in part by a function programmed in MatLab, and will be the basis for the planning of the first movement a work for woodwind trio.

Keywords

Systemic modelling – compositional systems – parametric generalization – theory of contours.

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Rhythmic gradations on the limits of human perception: Atmosphères, by György Ligeti

Claudio Vitale 

Abstract

In this article we study a fragment of the work Atmosphères (rehearsal C) of the composer György Ligeti. We use the concept of gradation as a basis for our interpretations establishing relations with the notion of continuum. We think this pair of concepts is essential when considering the production of the composer after his experience at the Cologne's Studio for Electronic Music. In fact, we can affirm that gradation as a technique frequently supports the sensation of continuum in the perception of the work. We consider the study of Atmosphères relevant because in this work the composer consolidated a language that had great impact in his posterior works. Our analysis of rhythmic processes tries to show that a similar compositional technique is used both in the pitch and rhythmic contexts. In that respect, ideas such as gradation or "cluster with holes" (continuity with discontinuities) can be applied to both processes.

Keywords

Atmosphères – György Ligeti – gradation – rhythmic processes – continuum – musical analysis.

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The sound sculptures of Harry Bertoia and Bernard and François Baschet

Marcus Ferrer 

Abstract

In this paper, we address part of the production of three artists: the sculptor Harry Bertoia, which produced a wide range of sound sculptures in the 60s and 70s; and Baschet brothers who created a series of musical instruments from the 1950s, being exhibited in museums, and also considered as sound sculptures. Analyze this production from texts where personal visions of the artists themselves are exposed. Finally, we will point out points of convergence and divergence in creating these sound sculptures.

Keywords

Sound art – sound sculpture – Harry Bertoia – Baschet Brothers.

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Cordel of the Moon Road: an ethnography

Ricardo Simões 

Abstract

This article aims to report some activities and experiences of “Cordel da Estrada da Lua”, group that exists in the city of Cunha , São Paulo countryside. This group develops musical and poetic experiences of great spontaneity and mysticism. The author of this article merges the roles of participatory fieldwork with creative process.

Keywords

Music and ritual – participatory ethnography – folklore – construction of musical instruments – ceramics.

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A cog­ni­tive the­ory of mu­si­cal aes­thetic ef­fect

Marcos Nogueira 

Ab­stract

A mod­ern in­tel­lec­tu­al­ism has con­sol­i­dated the idea of struc­ture in mu­sic ex­pe­ri­ence, de­vel­op­ing var­i­ous strate­gies for the build­ing and recog­ni­tion of mu­si­cal form. This for­mal­ism ce­mented the idea that mu­si­cal un­der­stand­ing re­sults from the mere ap­pre­hen­sion of a log­i­cal arrange­ment of mu­si­cal events con­cate­nated dis­cur­sively. Thus, the for­mal mod­els re­sult­ing from a mu­si­cal pars­ing gave the il­lu­sion of styl­is­tic co­her­ence among the works un­der scrutiny and com­par­i­son, as­sum­ing a cen­tral role as the ob­ject of mu­si­cal un­der­stand­ing. How­ever, if we con­sider that mean­ing in mu­sic - as any other mean­ings in all fields of knowl­edge – emerges from our en­gage­ment with the world, and orig­i­nates in and out of our sen­sory-mo­tor act, as pro­posed by em­bod­ied re­al­ism. There­fore, mu­si­cal un­der­stand­ing is firstly the un­der­stand­ing of the process of ab­strac­tion of those for­mal mod­els, but not the mod­els it­self. We are fac­ing the tra­di­tional dis­pute be­tween for­mal se­man­tics – that mu­sic would point di­rectly to the ref­er­en­tial field (ex­pres­sion, ideas, feel­ings, rep­re­sen­ta­tion, sym­bol­ism), re­peat­edly ap­proached by mu­sic the­ory of Moder­nity – and cog­ni­tive se­man­tics, com­mit­ted to build how mu­si­cal mean­ing is con­structed, i.e., to the study of processes by which we imag­i­na­tively or­ga­nize mu­si­cal events in the act of lis­ten­ing. This ar­ti­cle dis­cusses the processes that con­sti­tute the cog­ni­tive se­man­tics of mu­si­cal un­der­stand­ing

Key­wods

Mu­si­cal cog­ni­tion – cog­ni­tive se­man­tics - mu­si­cal form – lis­ten­ing – acoustic ef­fect.

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