RBM 29/1

Music in the Luso-Brazilian space




     
PDF Full Publication
     

The Revista Brasileira de Música (Brazilian Journal of Music) endures its ninth decade celebrating Brazilian music and its intersections with the musical culture of other countries and international musicological thinking. The RBM consolidates its editorial policy of internationalization and democratization of access to knowledge, and seeks to promote the improvement of musicological approaches and to reformulate its interdisciplinary postures.

The main theme “Music in the Luso-Brazilian space”, of this volume, clings with a set of studies presented earlier in this journal, “Repercussions from the long eighteenth century” (RBM, v. 23, n. 2, July-Dec. 2010), and offers another set of articles focusing on the historical, musical, cultural and musicological relations between Brazil and Portugal. These volumes are also related to the perspective presented in the previous volume (RBM, v. 28, n. 2, July-Dec. 2015) as it integrates the “world system” (Wallerstein) through musical practices belonging to institutionalized structures of knowledge, also historically situated, which, however, contain in itself possibilities of repositioning the relations between “center” and “periphery, as well as of reinventing worldviews.

The RBM wishes to acknowledge its editorial team for their dedication to this project, the new Director of the School of Music of UFRJ, Maria José Chevitarese, the Head of the Graduate Studies Program in Music, Pauxy Gentil Nunes. Thanks also to my colleagues on the Deliberative Committee of the Graduate Studies Program in Music and the RBM Executive Committee. Further thanks go to all members of the Editorial Advisory Board and ad hoc referees for their expertise and readiness to respond to our demands. In the quality of Editor-in-Chief, I would like to express my special gratitude to my dear companions in battle, Marcos Nogueira and Francisco Conte, for their tireless work that made possible the production of these recent volumes.

May this issue shed new perspectives to the reader.

 

EDITORIAL

PDF Full Article


ARTICLES


Musical controversies between «practical» and learned musicians: the dispute between Caetano de Mello de Jesus and Gregorio de Souza e Gouvea (Vila da Cachoeira, Bahia, 1760)

Mariana Portas de Freitas 

Abstract

In Salvador da Bahia of the mid-18th century, the main festivities of the liturgical calendar were marked by polyphonic music (organ chant) accompanied by instruments, directed by chapel masters of the main churches in town. The investment in ceremonial and musical display at the Cathedral, the center of local religious power, was emulated by other churches supported by lay brotherhoods, such as the Santa Casa da Misericordia, an institution that often competed for preeminence in regard to musical splendor. In this context, Caetano Melo de Jesus and Gregorio de Souza e Gouvea maintained a long-lasting friendship, sometimes mixed with professional and artistic rivalry. In Vila da Cachoeira, they started a lively theoretical discussion on the tuning (temperament) of semi-tones in both voices and instruments. Challenging the dominant theoretical concepts, this exchange was fixed in a text that remained attached to Caetano’s musical treatise Escola de Canto de Orgaõ, as a sort of final “peroration” or epilogue.

Keywords

Music treatise – music theory – Luso-Brazilian music – Colonial period – 18th century – musical temperament – tuning instruments./p>

PDF Full Article

 

Dûvida de Gregorio de Sousa e Gouvea (ca. 1760) by Caetano de Melo de Jesus: diplomatic transcription and glossary

Mariana Portas de Freitas 

Abstract

Diplomatic transcription of the unpublished document Dúvida de Gregório de Sousa e Gouvea [Doubt of Gregorio de Sousa and Gouvea] (ca. 1760) by Caetano Melo de Jesus, chapel master of the See Cathedral of Bahia between the 1730s and 1760s. The text is part of the annexes of Part II in the manuscript of the music theory treatise Escola de Canto de Orgaõ [School of Polyphonic Chant] (1759-60) by the same author, preserved in Section Reserved Public Library of Évora. The diplomatic transcription is followed by a glossary of terms explaining their coeval meaning.

Keywords

Music treatise – music theory – Luso-Brazilian music – Colonial period – 18th century – musical temperament – tuning instruments.

PDF Full Article


Musical instruments in Dûvida de Gregorio de Sousa e Gouvea in Escola de Canto de Orgaõ by Caetano de Melo de Jesus

Mariana Portas de Freitas

Abstract

Survey of musical instruments cited in musical theoretical musical controversy Dúvida de Gregório de Sousa e Gouvea [Doubt of Gregorio de Sousa and Gouvea] (ca. 1760), by Caetano de Mello Jesus, and the attribution of perfect and imperfect instruments, preseting also a comparative analysis with coeval theoretical authors, represented by representados em Rafael Bluteau, Vocabulario Portuguez & Latino (1728).

Keywords

Music treatise – music theory – Luso-Brazilian music – Colonial period – 18th century – organology – tuning instruments.

PDF Full Article


The Cantum Ecclesiasticum and the Ordo Amplissimus - two Portuguese handbooks of music for the Ritual of the Departed

José Filomeno Martins Raimundo

Abstract

This study consists of a description of the contents of two manuals of music, composed for the ritual of the departed. These are post-tridentine manuals: “The Cantum Ecclesiasticum”, the earliest known edition of which is from 1614, by the authors Filipe de Magalhães and the Ordo Amplissimus, published in 1603, there are only two known copies, written by Duarte Lobo, Bento Godinho and Bartolomeu Vicente. The emphasis on death can be seen by the number of editions of the manuals, and the practice of praying for the departed, since the early days of Christianity until the 17th century, these are the key aspects of this study/reflection.  The two manuals makes part of the collection of music for the dead, constitute as important documents in the understanding of how, at the time, was marked the transition from this life to the next and the attention placed in the commemoration of the departed.

Keywords

Music and ritual – music liturgy – musical practice at funerals – 17th century – Iberian music – Filipe de Magalhães – Duarte Lobo.

PDF Full Article

 

Music and ceremonial in Fernão Cardim’s Jesuit letters (1583-90)

Eduardo Sola Chagas Lima

Abstract

This paper addresses Fernão Cardim’s letters to his Portuguese employer, in which he provides details on the missions of the Society of Jesus throughout Northeastern Brazil in late sixteenth century. This study dwells on the historical context of these letters and focuses on reports of ceremonial music, with special attention to themes such as Jesuit inculturation and adaptability. In analyzing the Jesuits’ peculiar musical engagement and interaction with the natives and their ceremonial practices, this paper evaluates the significance of this interrelationship for Jesuit Catholic ritual. This research also explores Cardim’s accounts on the intersection between Christian ceremonies and local rituals as one of the earliest documented signs of religious syncretism on Brazilian territory.

Keywords

Music and ritual – ceremonial music – inculturation – Jesuit missionaries – religious syncretism – Fernão Cardim.

PDF Full Article

 

Towards a classificatory organology of the viola and the violão in nineteenth-century Rio de Janeiro

Renato Moreira Varoni de Castro 

Abstract

This article investigates the organology of the viola and the violão in nineteenth century Rio de Janeiro discussing the difficulties of tracing a history of those instruments and uncertainties in their terminology, morphology and number of strings. It shows how the (cross-cultural) Hornbostel-Sachs (1914) system of classification of musical instruments translated into Portuguese creates problems for the study of plucked chordophones in the Luso-Brazilian context. Yet this work questions canonical histories of the guitar in Europe showing that despite some lines of descent having been traced previously to explain the creation of the modern instrument, the very characteristics of guitar-like instruments make it difficult for historians to categorise those chordophones. The author concludes the paper by proposing that a continuum can be drawn between the viola and the violão, which he suggests can encapsulate the various reference points of organological difference among the multitudes of chordophones in Rio de Janeiro.

Keywords

Organology – Hornbostel-Sachs system – Luso-Brazilian plucked chordophones – violaviolão – Belchior Dias’ guitar.

PDF Full Article

 

The commedia in sacred music: kyries as ouvertures in three masses by José Maurício Nunes Garcia

Diósnio Machado Neto 

Abstract

The Luso-Brazilian musical culture, adherence to principles Neapolitans reached in two ways: the operatic taste of the Crown and, in an interconnected way, the teaching model of the Patriarchal Seminary, the leading school of religious music of the Portuguese Empire. Using the words of Scheibe, Portuguese music was Italianized. Several symptoms show the difficulties that they had to find consensus in a time of profound changes in the religious world and its relation with the secular. In the Enlightenment imagination, the only possible music was the canon built on Pergolesi’s style. The aim of this paper is to analyse three kyries of Cantata-Masses by José Maurício Nunes Garcia (Mass of Our Lady of Conception, Pastoral Mass and Mass of St. Cecilia) in order to discuss the composer’s consciousness in relation to models of musical discourse associated with the ecclesiastical and the gallant styles, as well as the "mixed genre" (Mischmasch) arising from the Italian music (say Neapolitan) and Italianate composers. An attempt to demonstrate how the transit between the two fields and – ecclesiastical and theatrical – reached such a point that a kyrie turned to function as an opera ouverture, namely to introduce the affective meaning of the act, in this case, the liturgical act. As a secondary issue, the text demonstrates José Maurício’s mastering of the topical writing. In the web of his musical discourse emerges the domain of musical topics schemes, current in European music that legitimized him as a court musician. This is primarily a text on the musical rhetorics of a chapel master combining the forces of his royal servant presence, as well as a mestizo, in a court in exile.

Keywords

Luso-Brazilian music – Brazilian colonial period – sacred music – Neapolitan school – musical rethorics – musical topics – José Maurício Nunes Garcia.

PDF Full Article

 

The Portuguese presence in the Theatro da Paz on the eve of the resumption of opera seasons in Belém do Pará

Mário Alexandre Dantas Barbosa 

Abstract

This article provides an overview of the presence of Portuguese music and musicians on the main stage of the Pará state capital, the Theatro da Paz, after a three-year period marked by the absence of opera seasons. This survey approached coeval newspapers of the second half of 1899, and shows how the Belem society was supplied with spectacles from an array of music theater genres during this period. This study estimates the importance of cultural transit of artists and repertories of Portuguese origin in the effervescent artistic center in Northern Brazil at the height of its Belle Époque.

Brazil and Portugal cultural relations – Belém do Pará – 19th century – operetta – music theater – opera companies.

PDF Full Article

 

Ad dissonantiam per consonantiam”: the scope and limits of Darius Milhaud´s system of “Polytonalité harmonique”: the esthesic level (Part 2)

Manoel Aranha Corrêa do Lago 

Abstract

The first part of this study, published in a previous issue of this journal, discussed the Polytonalité Harmonique system, proposed by Darius Milhaud in 1923, from the perspective of the Molino & Nattiez’s tripartitional categories of the “immanent” and “poietical” levels. In continuation, this second part examines the system of “harmonic polytonality”, and some early controversies surrounding polytonality, from the perspective of the “esthesic level”. It is also suggested that the more general, and actually fundamental principle behind the system of “harmonic polytonality” – i.e., the compositional choice, among all possible “dissonant” vertical aggregate chords, of those which are decomposable into traditional “consonant” chords (accords classés) – applies well beyond the early twentieth-century répertoire, including later composers, such as Messiaen, Ligeti, Schnittke, Glass, Widmer, and Krieger.

Keywords

Harmonic polytonality – polyharmony – polymodality – set theory – tripartition – Carnatic modes – Charles Koechlin – Darius Milhaud – Igor Stravinsky.

PDF Full Article

 

BRAZILIAN MUSIC ARCHIVE

Introductory notes to the Lundu de Marruá

Edilson Vicente de Lima

Abstract

Brief sociohistorical account of the lundu – Luso-Afro-Brazilian dance, song, and instrumental genre – and presentation of musicological edition of the Lundu da Marruá , on the basis of the document P-Ln, M.M. 4460 belonging to the National Library of Lisbon, Portugal. The few surviving manuscripts of some lundus suggest that variation, glossing, and improvisation were common musical practice applied to that genre during the period.

Keywords

Brazilian music – Luso-Afro-Brazilian music – popular music – Colonial Brazil

PDF Full Article

Landum do Marruá (edition by Edilson Vicente de Lima) 

attrib. D. Francisco da Boa Morte

PDF Full Article